§ 71.01 – What service-consumed data must I estimate without 100% UPT?

(a)    You must estimate both UPT and PMT.

(b)   The following table shows the data items you must estimate.

Table 71.01.  Service-Consumed Data Items without 100% UPT

If your mode is

you must estimate

demand response – taxi (DT)

·  annual total UPT and PMT

commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (CR)

·  annual total UPT and PMT

·  average daily UPT and PMT by type of service days

·  annual total UPT by weekday time period

any other mode

·  annual total UPT and PMT

·  average daily UPT and PMT by type of service days

§ 71.03 – What do I need to do in general to get estimates of these data items?

(a)    You must determine sample averages.

(b)   You must determine expansion factors.

(c)    You must combine the expansion factors and sample averages to get the corresponding estimates of service-consumed data.

§ 71.05 – What is a sample average?

(a)    A sample average is the sample total divided by the number of service units in the sample. 

(b)   It may be calculated for the entire annual sample, by the type of service day, or for specific weekday time periods. 

(c)    Sample averages are used to estimate service-consumed data when your sampling plan is based on the base option.

§ 71.07 – What is an expansion factor?

(a)    A measure of actual services operated during a given duration of time. 

(b)   It is used to convert sample averages to totals in the given duration.  The total number of one-way bus trips operated during an entire report year is an example of an expansion factor in actual services operated; when multiplied by sample average PMT per one-way bus trip, it yields a measure of annual total PMT.

§ 71.09 – How is the guidance organized?

(a)    The guidance is separate in three subsections for three modal groups to reduce confusion over the different units of sampling and measurement that are typically used for these three modal groups:

(1)   Non-scheduled services, including demand response (DR and DT), vanpool (VP), jitney (JT), or público (PB) (Subsection 73).

(2)   Rail services, including heavy rail (HR), commuter rail (CR), light rail (LR), monorail and automated guideway (MG) (Subsection 75).

(3)   Bus services, including bus (MB), commuter bus (CB), bus rapid transit (RB), or trolley bus (TB) (Subsection 77).

(b)   Subsection 79 contains the guidance on combining expansion factors and sample averages to get estimates of service-consumed data.

§ 73.01 – What expansion factor should I use for non-scheduled service?

(a)    You should use your 100% count of vehicle days as the expansion factor.

(b)   For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use annual total count of vehicle days if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use annual total count of vehicle days by group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(c)    For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use annual total count of vehicle days by type of service days.

§ 73.03 – What sample average should I use for non-scheduled service?

(a)    You must use the ratio of sample total PMT over sample total vehicle days as the sample average to estimate PMT.

(b)   You must use the ratio of sample total UPT over sample total vehicle days as the sample average to estimate UPT.

(c)    For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use the sample averages for the entire sample if you do not group your service.

(2)   Use the sample averages for each group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(d)   For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use the sample averages by type of service days.  If your sample happens not to include any vehicle-days for a particular day type (e.g. Saturday), use the sample average for the entire sample. 

§ 73.05 – How do I determine annual vehicle days actually operated for non-scheduled services?

(a)    You should use a spreadsheet or some other mechanism to record the daily number of passengers carried by individual vehicles in your fleet for an entire year. 

(b)   Figure 73.01 shows an example of such a spreadsheet with the following assumptions:

(1)   your fiscal year runs from July 1 through June 30,

(2)   you operate every day, and

(3)   your fleet has 100 vehicles. 

(c)    Once you have such a spreadsheet, you can easily determine the daily number of vehicles operated by type of service days in two steps:

(1)   For any one operating date, count the number of vehicles in the fleet that carried at least one passenger on that date.

(2)   Summarize the daily number of vehicles operated by type of service days.

(d)    You can also use such a spreadsheet to determine the number of vehicles operated for each group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

 

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

···

CZ

DA

1

Date

Month

Day of Week

Daily Passengers Carried by Vehicle No.

2

1

2

3

4

5

6

···

100

Total

3

7/1/09

July

Wed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

7/2/09

July

Thu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

7/3/09

July

Fri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

7/4/09

July

Sat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

···

···

···

···

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

367

6/30/10

June

Wed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

368

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 73.01.  Daily Passenger Count Worksheet for Non-Scheduled Services

§ 75.01 – What expansion factor should I use for rail services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the expansion factor you should use.

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is one of the following:

(1)   One-way car trips.

(2)   One-way train trips.

(3)   Round-trip car trips.

(4)   Round-trip train trips.

(c)    The following assumes that your sampling plan is based on one-way car trips.

(d)   For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use annual total one-way car trips if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use annual total one-way car trips by group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(e)    For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use annual total one-way car trips by type of service days.

(f)    For estimating annual total UPT for heavy rail (HR), commuter rail (CR), light rail (LR) by weekday time period, use annual total one-way car trips by weekday time period. 

§ 75.03 – What sample average should I use for rail services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the sample average you should use. 

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is one of the following:

(1)   One-way car trips.

(2)   One-way train trips.

(3)   Round-trip car trips.

(4)   Round-trip train trips.

(c)    Assuming that your unit of sampling and measurement is in one-way car trips, Table 75.01 shows the sample averages you should use.

(d)   If your sample happens not to include any one-way car trips for a particular weekday time period, use UPT per one-way car trip for weekdays to estimate the annual total UPT for this weekday time period. 

Table 75.01.  Sample Averages for Rail Services

If the service-consumed measure is

and if the measure is

and if your sampling plan is

and if your mode is

then you should calculate the following sample average

UPT

for annual total

not based on grouping

 

UPT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

 

UPT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

 

UPT/one-way car trip by type of service days

by weekday time period

 

commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR)

UPT/one-way car trip by weekday time period

PMT

for annual total

not based on grouping

 

PMT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

 

PMT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

 

PMT/one-way car trip by type of service days

§ 75.05 – What steps should I follow to calculate sample averages?

(a)    Aggregate the field sample data to the individual service units in your sample after you have identified and corrected any errors in the data. 

(b)   If the unit of sampling and measurement for your sampling plan is one-way car trips, sum these quantities over individual one-way car trips in the sample to get sample totals:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by weekday time period if your service is commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR), and

(4)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(c)    Count the number of one-way car trips in the sample:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by weekday time period if your service is commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR), and

(4)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(d)   Divide sample totals by the number of one-way car trips for the entire sample, by type of service days, by weekday time period if applicable, or by service group if applicable.

§ 75.07 – How should I determine annual services actually provided as expansion factors?

(a)    You should measure annual services actually provided in the unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan.

(b)   For estimating annual totals of service-consumed data, you should follow these steps:

(1)   Start with your schedule.

(2)   When the schedule is changed by policy or by emergency conditions, the count from the schedule must be adjusted accordingly.

(3)   You must also include added services such as trippers and other special operations.

(4)   If your sampling plan is based on service grouping, you must also count annual services actually provided for each group.

(c)    For estimating service-consumed data by type of service days, you should also start your schedule, and exclude scheduled services on atypical days.

(d)   For estimating annual total UPT for commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR) by weekday time period, you should start with your weekday schedule, and exclude scheduled services on atypical weekdays.

(e)    Refer to the NTD Reporting Manual on determining what are considered atypical days.

§ 77.01 – What expansion factor should I use for bus services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the expansion factor you should use.

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is in one-way bus trips or in round-trip bus trips.

(c)    The following assumes that your sampling plan is based on one-way bus trips.

(d)   For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use annual total one-way bus trips if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use annual total one-way bus trips by group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(e)    For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use annual total one-way bus trips by type of service days.

§ 77.03 – What sample average should I use for bus services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the sample average you should use. 

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is in one-way bus trips or in round-trip bus trips.

(c)    Assuming that your unit of sampling and measurement is in one-way bus trips, Table 77.01 shows the sample averages you should use.

(d)   If your sample happens not to include any one-way bus trips for a particular day type (e.g., Saturday), use the sample average for the entire sample. 

Table 77.01.  Sample Averages for Bus Services

If the service-consumed measure is

and if the measure is

and if your sampling plan is

then you should calculate the following sample average

UPT

for annual total

not based on grouping

UPT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

UPT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

UPT/one-way car trip by type of service days

PMT

for annual total

not based on grouping

PMT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

PMT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

PMT/one-way car trip by type of service days

§ 77.05 – What steps should I follow to calculate sample averages?

(a)    Aggregate the field sample data to the individual service units in your sample after you have identified and corrected any errors in the data. 

(b)   If the unit of sampling and measurement for your sampling plan is one-way bus trips, sum these quantities over individual one-way bus trips in the sample to get sample totals:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(c)    Count the number of one-way bus trips in the sample:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(d)   Divide sample totals by the number of one-way bus trips for the entire sample, by type of service days, or by service group if applicable.

§ 77.07 – How should I determine annual services actually provided as expansion factors?

(a)    You should measure annual services actually provided in the unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan.

(b)   For estimating annual totals of service-consumed data, you should follow these steps:

(1)   Start with your schedule.

(2)   When the schedule is changed by policy or by emergency conditions, the count from the schedule must be adjusted accordingly.

(3)   You must also include added services such as trippers and other special operations.

(4)   If your sampling plan is based on service grouping, you must also count annual services actually provided for each group.

(c)    For estimating service-consumed data by type of service days, you should also start with your schedule, and exclude scheduled services on atypical days.  Refer to the NTD Reporting Manual for determining what are considered atypical days.

§ 79.01 – How should I estimate the annual total of my service-consumed data?

(a)    If your sampling plan is not based on service grouping, you should multiply your sample average for the entire sample with the annual total of your corresponding expansion factor to get an estimate of the annual total.

(b)   If your sampling plan is based on service grouping, you should take a two-step approach:

(1)   Multiply your sample average with your corresponding expansion factor for each group, and

(2)   Sum the above products across all groups to get your annual total.

§ 79.03 – How should I estimate average daily of service-consumed data by type of service days?

(a)    If you operate your service only on weekdays, all you need to do is to divide your estimated annual total by the number of typical weekday days of service.

(b)   If you operate your service on Saturdays, Sundays, or both as well, you should take the following two steps:

(1)   Multiply your sample average(s) for each type of service days with the corresponding expansion factor to get the annual total for each type of service days.

(2)   Divide the annual total for each type of service days by the corresponding number of typical days for each type of service days.

§ 79.05 – How should I estimate annual total UPT for each weekday period for commuter rail, heavy rail, and light rail?

(a)    For each of the weekday periods, you should simply multiply the sample average UPT you have calculated for that period by the corresponding expansion factor to get an estimate of the annual total UPT for that weekday period.