§ 71.01 – What service-consumed data must I estimate without 100% UPT?

(a)    You must estimate both UPT and PMT.

(b)   The following table shows the data items you must estimate.

Table 71.01.  Service-Consumed Data Items without 100% UPT

If your mode is

you must estimate

demand response – taxi (DT)

·  annual total UPT and PMT

commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (CR)

·  annual total UPT and PMT

·  average daily UPT and PMT by type of service days

·  annual total UPT by weekday time period

any other mode

·  annual total UPT and PMT

·  average daily UPT and PMT by type of service days

§ 71.03 – What do I need to do in general to get estimates of these data items?

(a)    You must determine sample averages.

(b)   You must determine expansion factors.

(c)    You must combine the expansion factors and sample averages to get the corresponding estimates of service-consumed data.

§ 71.05 – What is a sample average?

(a)    A sample average is the sample total divided by the number of service units in the sample. 

(b)   It may be calculated for the entire annual sample, by the type of service day, or for specific weekday time periods. 

(c)    Sample averages are used to estimate service-consumed data when your sampling plan is based on the base option.

§ 71.07 – What is an expansion factor?

(a)    A measure of actual services operated during a given duration of time. 

(b)   It is used to convert sample averages to totals in the given duration.  The total number of one-way bus trips operated during an entire report year is an example of an expansion factor in actual services operated; when multiplied by sample average PMT per one-way bus trip, it yields a measure of annual total PMT.

§ 71.09 – How is the guidance organized?

(a)    The guidance is separate in three subsections for three modal groups to reduce confusion over the different units of sampling and measurement that are typically used for these three modal groups:

(1)   Non-scheduled services, including demand response (DR and DT), vanpool (VP), jitney (JT), or público (PB) (Subsection 73).

(2)   Rail services, including heavy rail (HR), commuter rail (CR), light rail (LR), monorail and automated guideway (MG) (Subsection 75).

(3)   Bus services, including bus (MB), commuter bus (CB), bus rapid transit (RB), or trolley bus (TB) (Subsection 77).

(b)   Subsection 79 contains the guidance on combining expansion factors and sample averages to get estimates of service-consumed data.

§ 73.01 – What expansion factor should I use for non-scheduled service?

(a)    You should use your 100% count of vehicle days as the expansion factor.

(b)   For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use annual total count of vehicle days if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use annual total count of vehicle days by group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(c)    For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use annual total count of vehicle days by type of service days.

§ 73.03 – What sample average should I use for non-scheduled service?

(a)    You must use the ratio of sample total PMT over sample total vehicle days as the sample average to estimate PMT.

(b)   You must use the ratio of sample total UPT over sample total vehicle days as the sample average to estimate UPT.

(c)    For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use the sample averages for the entire sample if you do not group your service.

(2)   Use the sample averages for each group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(d)   For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use the sample averages by type of service days.  If your sample happens not to include any vehicle-days for a particular day type (e.g. Saturday), use the sample average for the entire sample. 

§ 73.05 – How do I determine annual vehicle days actually operated for non-scheduled services?

(a)    You should use a spreadsheet or some other mechanism to record the daily number of passengers carried by individual vehicles in your fleet for an entire year. 

(b)   Figure 73.01 shows an example of such a spreadsheet with the following assumptions:

(1)   your fiscal year runs from July 1 through June 30,

(2)   you operate every day, and

(3)   your fleet has 100 vehicles. 

(c)    Once you have such a spreadsheet, you can easily determine the daily number of vehicles operated by type of service days in two steps:

(1)   For any one operating date, count the number of vehicles in the fleet that carried at least one passenger on that date.

(2)   Summarize the daily number of vehicles operated by type of service days.

(d)    You can also use such a spreadsheet to determine the number of vehicles operated for each group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

 

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

···

CZ

DA

1

Date

Month

Day of Week

Daily Passengers Carried by Vehicle No.

2

1

2

3

4

5

6

···

100

Total

3

7/1/09

July

Wed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

7/2/09

July

Thu

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

7/3/09

July

Fri

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

7/4/09

July

Sat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

···

···

···

···

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

367

6/30/10

June

Wed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

368

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 73.01.  Daily Passenger Count Worksheet for Non-Scheduled Services

§ 75.01 – What expansion factor should I use for rail services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the expansion factor you should use.

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is one of the following:

(1)   One-way car trips.

(2)   One-way train trips.

(3)   Round-trip car trips.

(4)   Round-trip train trips.

(c)    The following assumes that your sampling plan is based on one-way car trips.

(d)   For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use annual total one-way car trips if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use annual total one-way car trips by group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(e)    For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use annual total one-way car trips by type of service days.

(f)    For estimating annual total UPT for heavy rail (HR), commuter rail (CR), light rail (LR) by weekday time period, use annual total one-way car trips by weekday time period. 

§ 75.03 – What sample average should I use for rail services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the sample average you should use. 

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is one of the following:

(1)   One-way car trips.

(2)   One-way train trips.

(3)   Round-trip car trips.

(4)   Round-trip train trips.

(c)    Assuming that your unit of sampling and measurement is in one-way car trips, Table 75.01 shows the sample averages you should use.

(d)   If your sample happens not to include any one-way car trips for a particular weekday time period, use UPT per one-way car trip for weekdays to estimate the annual total UPT for this weekday time period. 

Table 75.01.  Sample Averages for Rail Services

If the service-consumed measure is

and if the measure is

and if your sampling plan is

and if your mode is

then you should calculate the following sample average

UPT

for annual total

not based on grouping

 

UPT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

 

UPT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

 

UPT/one-way car trip by type of service days

by weekday time period

 

commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR)

UPT/one-way car trip by weekday time period

PMT

for annual total

not based on grouping

 

PMT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

 

PMT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

 

PMT/one-way car trip by type of service days

§ 75.05 – What steps should I follow to calculate sample averages?

(a)    Aggregate the field sample data to the individual service units in your sample after you have identified and corrected any errors in the data. 

(b)   If the unit of sampling and measurement for your sampling plan is one-way car trips, sum these quantities over individual one-way car trips in the sample to get sample totals:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by weekday time period if your service is commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR), and

(4)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(c)    Count the number of one-way car trips in the sample:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by weekday time period if your service is commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR), and

(4)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(d)   Divide sample totals by the number of one-way car trips for the entire sample, by type of service days, by weekday time period if applicable, or by service group if applicable.

§ 75.07 – How should I determine annual services actually provided as expansion factors?

(a)    You should measure annual services actually provided in the unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan.

(b)   For estimating annual totals of service-consumed data, you should follow these steps:

(1)   Start with your schedule.

(2)   When the schedule is changed by policy or by emergency conditions, the count from the schedule must be adjusted accordingly.

(3)   You must also include added services such as trippers and other special operations.

(4)   If your sampling plan is based on service grouping, you must also count annual services actually provided for each group.

(c)    For estimating service-consumed data by type of service days, you should also start your schedule, and exclude scheduled services on atypical days.

(d)   For estimating annual total UPT for commuter rail (CR), heavy rail (HR), or light rail (LR) by weekday time period, you should start with your weekday schedule, and exclude scheduled services on atypical weekdays.

(e)    Refer to the NTD Reporting Manual on determining what are considered atypical days.

§ 77.01 – What expansion factor should I use for bus services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the expansion factor you should use.

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is in one-way bus trips or in round-trip bus trips.

(c)    The following assumes that your sampling plan is based on one-way bus trips.

(d)   For estimating annual total PMT and UPT:

(1)   Use annual total one-way bus trips if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use annual total one-way bus trips by group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(e)    For estimating average daily PMT and UPT by type of service days, use annual total one-way bus trips by type of service days.

§ 77.03 – What sample average should I use for bus services?

(a)    The unit of sampling and measurement you have chosen for your sampling plan determines the sample average you should use. 

(b)   While you could have chosen any unit of sampling measurement for your sampling plan, it most likely is in one-way bus trips or in round-trip bus trips.

(c)    Assuming that your unit of sampling and measurement is in one-way bus trips, Table 77.01 shows the sample averages you should use.

(d)   If your sample happens not to include any one-way bus trips for a particular day type (e.g., Saturday), use the sample average for the entire sample. 

Table 77.01.  Sample Averages for Bus Services

If the service-consumed measure is

and if the measure is

and if your sampling plan is

then you should calculate the following sample average

UPT

for annual total

not based on grouping

UPT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

UPT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

UPT/one-way car trip by type of service days

PMT

for annual total

not based on grouping

PMT/one-way car trip

based on grouping

PMT/one-way car trip by group

for daily average

 

PMT/one-way car trip by type of service days

§ 77.05 – What steps should I follow to calculate sample averages?

(a)    Aggregate the field sample data to the individual service units in your sample after you have identified and corrected any errors in the data. 

(b)   If the unit of sampling and measurement for your sampling plan is one-way bus trips, sum these quantities over individual one-way bus trips in the sample to get sample totals:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(c)    Count the number of one-way bus trips in the sample:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days,

(3)   by group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

(d)   Divide sample totals by the number of one-way bus trips for the entire sample, by type of service days, or by service group if applicable.

§ 79.01 – How should I estimate the annual total of my service-consumed data?

(a)    If your sampling plan is not based on service grouping, you should multiply your sample average for the entire sample with the annual total of your corresponding expansion factor to get an estimate of the annual total.

(b)   If your sampling plan is based on service grouping, you should take a two-step approach:

(1)   Multiply your sample average with your corresponding expansion factor for each group, and

(2)   Sum the above products across all groups to get your annual total.

§ 79.05 – How should I estimate annual total UPT for each weekday period for commuter rail, heavy rail, and light rail?

(a)    For each of the weekday periods, you should simply multiply the sample average UPT you have calculated for that period by the corresponding expansion factor to get an estimate of the annual total UPT for that weekday period.

§ 81.01 – What service-consumed data must I estimate with 100% UPT?

(a)    You must estimate PMT.

(b)   The following table shows the data items you must estimate.

Table 81.01.  Service-Consumed Data Items with 100% UPT

If your sampling plan is based on the

you must estimate

APTL option

·  annual total PMT

·  average daily PMT by type of service days

PPMT option

·  annual total PMT

·  average daily PMT by type of service days

§ 81.03 – What do I need to do in general to get estimates of these data items?

(a)    You must determine expansion factors.

(b)   You must determine sample ratios.

(c)    You must combine the expansion factors and sample ratios to get the corresponding estimates of service-consumed data.

§ 81.05 – What is a sample ratio?

(a)    A sample ratio is the ratio between the sample total of one measure of service-consumed and the sample total of another measure of service-consumed.  This Sampling Manual uses two sample ratios:

(1)   The ratio of sample total PMT over sample total UPT gives the sample APTL.

(2)   The ratio of sample total PMT over sample total PPMT gives the sample PMT/PPMT ratio.

(b)   They may be calculated for the entire annual sample or by the type of service days.

§ 81.07 – What is an expansion factor when I have 100% UPT?

(a)    A measure of actual services consumed during a given duration of time. 

(b)   It is used to convert sample ratios to totals in the given duration.  A 100% count of UPT consumed during an entire year is an example of an expansion factor in service consumed; when multiplied by sample APTL, it yields a measure of annual total PMT.

§ 83.01 – What expansion factor should I use for the APTL option?

(a)    You must use your 100% count of UPT as the expansion factor.

(b)   For estimating average daily PMT by type of service days, use your annual total 100% count of UPT by type of service days.

(c)    For estimating annual total PMT:

(1)   Use your annual total 100% count of UPT if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use your annual total 100% count of UPT by service group if your sampling plan is based on grouping and you have reliable 100% counts of UPT by service group and have entered information into the template accordingly in developing your current template sampling plan.  Refer to cell M52 of the PeriodInput Worksheet in the template you used in developing your current period-based template sampling plan, and it should be 1.

(3)   Use your annual total 100% count of UPT if your sampling plan is based on grouping but you do not have reliable 100% counts of UPT by service group and you have entered information into the template accordingly in developing your current period-based template sampling plan.  Refer to cell M52 of the PeriodInput Worksheet in the template you used in developing your current period-based template sampling plan, and it should be 0.

§ 83.03 – What sample ratio should I use for the APTL option?

(a)    You must use the sample APTL as the sample ratio.

(b)   Use sample APTL by type of service days for estimating average daily PMT by type of service days.  If your sample happens not to include service unit for a particular day type (e.g., Saturday), use the sample APTL for the entire sample for this day type. 

(c)    For estimating annual total PMT:

(1)   Use sample APTL for the entire sample if you do not group your service.

(2)   Use sample APTL for each group if your sampling plan is based on grouping and you have reliable 100% counts of UPT by service group and have entered information into the template accordingly in developing your current period-based template sampling plan.  Refer to cell M52 of the PeriodInput Worksheet in the template you used in developing your current period-based template sampling plan, and it should be 1.

(3)   Use weighted sample APTL for the entire sample if your sampling plan is based on grouping but you do not have reliable 100% counts of UPT by service group and you have entered information into the template accordingly in developing your current period-based template sampling plan.  Refer to cell M52 of the PeriodInput Worksheet in the template you used in developing your current period-based template sampling plan, and it should be 0.

§ 83.05 – How should I determine the APTL from my sample?

(a)    You must determine the sample APTL for a given sample as the ratio of sample total PMT over sample total UPT for the following cases:

(1)   for the entire sample,

(2)   by type of service days, or

(3)   by service group if applicable.

(b)   You must not determine the sample APTL as the average of the APTL across individual service units in the sample.

(c)    To determine the weighted sample APTL for an entire sample as required by question §83.03(c)(3), you should follow these steps:

(1)   Determine each group’s size in the number of service units actual operated.

(2)   Compute each group’s share of the number of service units actually operated.  These shares must sum to 1.

(3)   Determine each group’s sample size in the number of service units in the sample.

(4)   Determine each group’s sample total UPT.

(5)   Determine each group’s sample total PMT.

(6)   Compute each group’s sample average for UPT.

(7)   Compute each group’s sample average for PMT.

(8)   Sum the product of each group’s share of the number of service units actually operated and its sample average UPT.

(9)   Sum the product of each group’s share of the number of service units actually operated and its sample average PMT.

(10)           Compute the ratio of the result from (9) to the result from (8).  This ratio gives the weighted sample APTL.

(11)           Table 83.01 shows these steps with an example.

Table 83.01.  Example of Estimating Weighted Sample APTL

Step

 Description

Service Groups

Short Routes

Medium Routes

Long Routes

1

Group size in service units

109,685

331,033

35,325

2

Group size in shares

0.2304

0.6954

0.0742

3

Sample size

116

386

47

4

Sample total UPT

1,157

8,181

1,592

5

Sample total PMT

3,989

42,966

7,003

6

Sample average UPT

10.0

21.2

33.9

7

Sample average PMT

34.4

111.3

149.0

8

Weighted sample average UPT

19.55

9

Weighted sample average PMT

96.38

10

Weighted sample APTL

4.93

§ 83.07 – How should I estimate annual total PMT for the APTL option?

(a)    If your sampling plan is not based on service grouping, you should multiply your sample APTL for the entire annual sample with your corresponding annual expansion factor (i.e., 100% count of annual UPT) to get an estimate of the annual total PMT.

(b)   You should take a two-step approach if your sampling plan is based on service grouping and you have reliable 100% counts of UPT by service group:

(1)   Multiply your sample APTL with your corresponding expansion factor for each group, and

(2)   Sum the above products across all groups to get your annual total PMT.

(c)    If your sampling plan is based on service grouping but you do not have reliable 100% counts of UPT by service group, you should multiple your weighted sample APTL as computed in question §83.05 with your 100% count of annual UPT.

(d)   If your sampling plan is based on service grouping, refer to cell M52 of the PeriodInput Worksheet in the template you used in developing your template sampling plan for what you have entered into cell M52 on whether you have reliable 100% count of UPT by service group.

§ 83.09 – How should I estimate average daily PMT by type of service days?

(a)    If you operate your service only on weekdays, all you need to do is to divide your estimated annual total PMT by the number of typical weekday days of service.

(b)   If you operate your service on Saturdays, Sundays, or both as well, you should take the following two steps:

(1)   Multiply your sample average APTL for each type of service days with the corresponding 100% count of UPT to get the annual total PMT for each type of service days.

(2)   Divide the estimated annual total PMT for each type of service days by the corresponding number of typical days for each type of service days.

§ 85.01 – What expansion factor should I use for the PPMT option?

(a)    You must use your 100% count of PPMT as the expansion factor.

(b)   For estimating annual total PMT:

(1)   Use annual total PPMT if your sampling plan is not based on grouping.

(2)   Use annual total PPMT by group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(c)    For estimating average daily PMT by type of service days, use annual total PPMT by type of service days.

§ 85.03 – How do I determine annual total PPMT?

(a)    Suppose that:

(1)   Your unit of sampling and measurement is one-way bus trips, and

(2)   You are going to estimate annual total PMT.

(b)   You should do the following for each route:

(1)   Determine the annual number of vehicle revenue miles for the report year.

(2)   Determine the annual number of vehicle revenue one-way trips for the report year.

(3)   Divide the annual number of vehicle revenue miles by the annual number of vehicle revenue one-way trips to get the average route length.

(4)   Multiply your route-level 100% counts of UPT with the calculated average route length to get route-level PPMT.

(c)    You should sum the calculated route-level PPMT across all routes to get your annual PPMT for all routes.

(d)   Table 85.01 illustrates how you may accomplish (b) and (c).

Table 85.01.  Calculating Annual Total PPMT for All Operating Routes

Route Number

Route Name

Annual Revenue Trips

Annual Revenue Miles

Average

Route Length

100% UPT

100% PPMT

90

Blue Line

3,869

9,975

2.58

22,866

58,952

50

Red Line

3,286

10,310

3.14

23,634

74,148

14

Prospect

1,643

10,690

6.51

24,506

159,446

12

Beechcrest

1,643

11,835

7.20

27,131

195,435

17

College

3,286

30,666

9.33

70,298

656,036

37

Park 100

1,325

22,733

17.16

52,112

894,068

8

Washington

3,392

61,077

18.01

140,012

2,521,072

19

Castleton

1,696

32,916

19.41

75,457

1,464,491

26

Keystone

1,378

28,505

20.69

65,344

1,351,666

10

10th St.

3,339

69,897

20.93

160,231

3,354,198

Total

10,729,514

(e)    If your sampling plan is based on service grouping, you must also determine PPMT for each group.  Suppose, for example, that you have grouped your short routes into one group and your longer routes into another.  Table 85.03 illustrates how you may use route-level information on annual revenue miles, annual revenue trips, and annual UPT to determine PPMT for each group.

Table 85.03.  Calculating Annual Total PPMT by Route Group

Route Group

Route Number

Annual Revenue Trips

Annual Revenue Miles

Average

Route Length

100% UPT

100% PPMT

Short Routes

90

3,869

9,975

2.58

22,866

58,952

50

3,286

10,310

3.14

23,634

74,148

14

1,643

10,690

6.51

24,506

159,446

12

1,643

11,835

7.20

27,131

195,435

17

3,286

30,666

9.33

70,298

656,036

Total

1,144,018

Long Routes

37

1,325

22,733

17.16

52,112

894,068

8

3,392

61,077

18.01

140,012

2,521,072

19

1,696

32,916

19.41

75,457

1,464,491

26

1,378

28,505

20.69

65,344

1,351,666

10

3,339

69,897

20.93

160,231

3,354,198

Total

9,585,496

§ 85.05 – How should I get the sample total of PPMT for each service unit?

(a)    You should follow the guidance for question § 85.03 to determine the average route length for each route.

(b)   Identify the route for each one-way trip in your service units in the sample.

(c)    Multiply the sample UPT by the average route length for each one-way trip to get sample PPMT for each one-way trip.

(d)   Sum the trip-level PPMT for all one-way trips in a service unit to get sample PPMT for each service unit. 

§ 85.07 – What sample ratio should I use for the PPMT option?

(a)    You must use the ratio of sample total PMT over sample total PPMT as the sample ratio.

(b)   For estimating annual total PMT:

(1)   Use sample PMT/PPMT ratio for the entire sample if you do not group your service.

(2)   Use sample PMT/PPMT for each group if your sampling plan is based on grouping.

(c)    For estimating average daily PMT by type of service days, use the sample PMT/PPMT ratio by type of service days.

§ 85.09 – How should I determine the PMT/PPMT ratio for a sample?

(a)    You must determine the sample PMT/PPMT ratio for a given sample as the ratio of sample total PMT over sample total PPMT.

(b)   You must not determine the sample ratio as the average of the PMT/PPMT ratio for individual service units in the sample.

§ 85.11 – How should I estimate annual total PMT for the PPMT option?

(a)    You should multiply your sample PMT/PPMT ratio for the entire annual sample with the annual total of your PPMT to get an estimate of the annual total PMT if your  sampling plan is not based on service grouping, or

(b)   You should take a two-step approach if your sampling plan is based on service grouping:

(1)   Multiply your sample PMT/PPMT ratio with your corresponding annual total PPMT for each group, and

(2)   Sum the above products across all groups to get your annual total PMT.

§ 85.13 – How should I estimate average daily PMT by type of service days?

(a)    If you operate your service only on weekdays, all you need to do is to divide your estimated annual total PMT by the number of typical weekday days of service.

(b)   If you operate your service on Saturdays, Sundays, or both as well, you should take the following two steps:

(1)   Multiply your sample PMT/PPMT ratio for each type of service days with the corresponding annual total PPMT to get the annual total PMT for each type of service days.

(2)   Divide the annual total PMT for each type of service days by the corresponding number of typical days for each type of service days.

§ 91.05 What do the estimation-related terms mean?

100% count.  A method of obtaining service-consumed data.  This term also often refers to the results of a 100% count.  For UPT, it involves counting passengers each time they board a transit vehicle in revenue service, such as through a registering farebox.  For PMT, it involves recording the distance traveled by all passengers.  A 100% count of PMT is typically only possible for systems that have only two stops, for rail systems that record entry and exit from the system, or for rail systems that rely upon destination-based tickets. 

Average passenger trip length (APTL).  The average distance traveled for an unlinked passenger trip. It is calculated as PMT divided by UPT.

Average route length.  The average length of a route actually traveled by vehicles in scheduled services.   It is calculated by dividing the annual vehicle revenue miles by the number of annual vehicle revenue one-way trips for that route. 

Expansion factor.  A measure of actual services operated or consumed during a given duration of time.  It is used to convert a sample average to the total of service-consumed data for that duration.  It varies with sampling plans.  The total number of one-way bus trips operated during an entire report year is an example of an expansion factor; when multiplied by the sample average PMT per one-way bus trip derived from annual NTD sample, it yields a measure of annual total PMT.

Passenger miles traveled (PMT).  The total distance traveled by all passengers during a given period.

Potential passenger miles traveled.  The maximum number of passenger miles that could have been traveled by all passengers along a given fixed route during a year (or some other time duration.)  It is calculated by multiplying a 100% count of UPT times the average route length of that route during that duration.

Sample average.  The sample total divided by the number of service units in the sample.  It may be calculated for the entire annual sample, or by the type of service day, or for specific weekday time periods.  For example, dividing the total PMT in an annual NTD sample by the total number of one-way bus trips in the annual NTD sample gives a sample average PMT.

Sample data.  The data collected from a sample of service units according to a sampling plan that meets FTA’s 95% confidence and 10% precision levels.

Sample ratio.  The ratio of the sample total for one measure of service-consumed over the sample total for another measure of service-consumed.  For example, the ratio of the sample data for PMT over the sample total for UPT gives the sample APTL.  It may be calculated for the entire annual sample, or by the type of service days, or for individual service group if your sampling plan is based on service grouping.

Sample total.  The sum total of all data across the service units in a random sample.  For example, if you are sampling for PMT, the PMT sample total is the sum of the PMT collected for each of the one-way bus trip in the sample.  It may be calculated for the entire annual sample, or by the type of service day, or for specific weekday time periods.

Service-consumed data.  Passenger miles traveled and unlinked passenger trips.

Type of service days.  Weekdays, Saturdays, or Sundays.  For scheduled services, service days in a report year are classified according to the schedule operated on that day.  If a weekday that is a holiday is served with a Sunday schedule, that weekday is considered to be a Sunday.  For non-scheduled services, service days are the actual days of a week regardless of whether they are a holiday or not.

Typical day.  For your scheduled services, it is a day on which you operate your normal, regular schedule and there are no anomalies such as extra service added for a special event or reduced service as a result of weather or interruption.  For your non-scheduled services, it is any day of operation.

Unlinked passenger trips (UPT).  The number of passengers who board transit vehicles in revenue service.  Passengers are counted each time they board a vehicle, no matter how many vehicles they use to travel from their origin to their destination.

Weekday time periods.  Weekday AM Peak, Weekday Midday, Weekday PM Peak, and Weekday Other.  The Reporting Manual instructs how you should define the start and end points of each period.

§ 91.07 What do the reporting terms mean?

Auditable record.  Documentation of information collected and processes used in collecting that information that demonstrates your compliance with NTD requirements. Such documentation may also help quality control within your agency when your NTD staff change over time.

First-time reporting.  Reporting of a particular service to the NTD for the first time.

§ 91.09 What abbreviations for general terms are used in this Manual?

APTL.  Average passenger trip length in miles

APC.  Automatic passenger counter

FTA.  Federal Transit Administration

NTD.  National Transit Database

PMT.  Passenger miles traveled

PPMT.  Potential passenger miles traveled

UPT.  Unlinked passenger trips

§ 91.11 What abbreviations for NTD modes are used in this Manual?

CB.  Commuter bus – Fixed-route bus systems that are primarily connecting outlying areas with a central city. Service typically uses over-the-road buses with service predominantly in one direction during peak periods, limited stops, and routes of extended length.

CC.  Cable car – A railway propelled by moving cables located beneath the street. While popular at the turn of the last century, the only surviving system is operated in San Francisco.

CR.  Commuter rail – Rail service operating on either old freight railways, or on tracks that are shared with freight railways, Amtrak, or both. The service is characterized by relatively long distances between stops, for service primarily connecting a central city with outlying suburbs and cities. The service may be either diesel or electric-powered and usually has grade-crossings with roadways.

DR.  Demand response – Shared-ride demand response service is scheduled in response to calls from passengers. Many transit systems operate demand response (DR) service to meet the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

DT.  Demand response – Taxi – A special form of the demand response mode operated through taxicab providers. The mode is always purchased transportation type of service.

HR.  Heavy rail – An electric railway that operates local service in exclusive right-of-way. The service is characterized by long trains of six to eight cars or more and by relatively short distances between stops for local service within a city and the immediate suburbs. The Nation’s traditional subway systems are classified as heavy rail.

JT.  Jitney – A transit mode comprising of owner-operated passenger cars or vans operating on fixed routes (sometimes with minor deviations) as demand warrants without fixed schedules or fixed stops.

LR.  Light rail – An electric railway that operates local service in mixed traffic with road vehicles, or has grade crossings with roadways. The service is characterized by short trains of one to four cars and by relatively short distances between stops for local service within a city and the immediate suburbs.

MB.  Bus – Fixed-route bus service is the most-prevalent mode in the country. MB service is powered by a motor and fuel contained within a vehicle. Deviated fixed-route service is also reported as MB.

MG.  Monorail and automated guideway – An electric railway that straddles a single guideway. It may have vehicle operators or may use computers to guide the vehicles.

PB.  Público – Publicos are jitney services operated in Puerto Rico. A transit mode comprising of passenger vans or small buses operating with fixed routes but no fixed schedules. Publicos (PB) are a privately owned and operated public transit service which is market oriented and unsubsidized, but regulated through a public service commission, state or local government. Publicos (PB) are operated under franchise agreements, fares are regulated by route and there are special insurance requirements. Vehicle capacity varies from eight to 24, and the vehicles may be owned or leased by the operator.

RB.  Bus rapid transit – Fixed-route bus systems that either (1) operate their routes predominantly on fixed-guideways (other than on highway high occupancy vehicle (HOV) or shoulder lanes, such as for commuter bus service) or (2) that operate routes of high-frequency service with the following elements: Substantial transit stations, traffic signal priority or preemption, low-floor vehicles or level-platform boarding, and separate branding of the service. High-frequency service is defined as 10-minute peak and 15-minute off-peak headways for at least 14 hours of service operations per day. This mode may include portions of service that are fixed-guideway and non-fixed-guideway.

SR.  Streetcar rail – Rail systems operating routes predominantly on streets in mixed-traffic. This service typically operates with single-car trains powered by overhead catenaries and with frequent stops.

TB.  Trolleybus – Fixed-route service using rubber tire buses powered by electric current from overhead wires using trolley poles. Service using rubber tire replica trolleys or historic trolleys, powered by an on-board motor are not included in this mode.

TR.  Arial tramway – A system of aerial cables with suspended vehicles.

VP.  Vanpool – A commuting service operating under prearranged schedules for previously formed groups of riders in vans.

YR.  Hybrid rail – Rail systems primarily operating routes on the National system of railroads, but not operating with the characteristics of commuter rail. This service typically operates light rail-type vehicles as diesel multiple-unit trains (DMU’s).